Ramadhan or in Arabic (called رمضان, Ramaḍhān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, believed to be the month in which the Qur'an was revealed to Angel Jibril to deliver it to Prophet Muhammad. It is the Islamic month of fasting (sawm), in which participating Muslims do not eat or drink anything from dawn until sunset. Fasting is meant to teach the person patience, sacrifice and humility. Ramadan is a time to fast for the sake of God, and to offer more prayer than usual. During Ramadan Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance into the future, ask for help in refraining from everyday evils and try to purify themselves through self-restraint and good deeds. The name "Ramadan" is the name of the ninth month; the word itself derived from an Arabic word *rmd as in "ramida" or "ar-ramad" denoting intense heat, scorched ground and shortness of rations. It is considered the most venerated and blessed month of the Islamic year. Prayers, sawm (fasting), charity, and self-accountability are especially stressed at this time; religious observances associated with Ramadan are kept throughout the month.
The most prominent event of this month is the fasting (sawm) which should be practiced by all Muslims. Every day during the Blessed month of Ramadan Muslims around the world get up before dawn to eat Suhoor, the pre-dawn meal, and perform the fajr prayer. They do not eat or drink anything after this prayer is said, until the fourth prayer of the day, Maghrib (sunset), is due. Muslims may continue to eat and drink after the sun has set, until the next morning's fajr prayer. During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam and to avoid obscene and irreligious sights and sounds. Sexual thoughts and activities during fasting hours are also forbidden.[Qur'an 2:187] Purity of both thought and action is important. The fast is intended to be an exacting act of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised level of closeness to God. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from harm. Properly observing the fast is supposed to induce a comfortable feeling of peace and calm. It also allows Muslims to practice self-discipline, sacrifice, and sympathy for those who are less fortunate. It is also intended to make Muslims more generous and charitable.
Laylat al-Qadr (Arabic: لیلة القدر) literally the "Night of Decrees" or "Night of Measures", is the anniversary of two very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan. Muslims believe that it was the night in which the Qur'an was revealed from God to Samaa Adunya (the sky of the world we live in). The Qur'an was revealed over many years to the Prophet. Muslims believe that any acts of worship undertaken on this night are rewarded in multiple thousands in comparison to the same act of worship done on any other day. There are two schools of thought on date of this event. Some Muslims are of the opinion that it lands on the 27th night of Ramadan while others believe that it may be any one of the last odd nights.
The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of the fasting period of Ramadan and the first day of the following month, after another new moon has been sighted. The Eid falls after 29 or 30 days of fasting, as per the lunar sighting. Eid ul-Fitr means the Festival of Breaking the Fast; a special celebration is made. Food is donated to the poor (‘Zakat al-Fitr’), everyone puts on their best, usually new, clothes, and communal prayers are held in the early morning, followed by feasting and visiting relatives and friends. The prayer is two rakaahs only, and it is an optional prayer as opposed to the compulsory five daily prayers. Muslims are encouraged to fast six days in Shawwal, the month following Ramadan that begins after Eid ul-Fitr; these days need not be consecutive. According to hadith, one who fasts the month of Ramadan and six days during Shawwal will be rewarded as though he fasted the entire year.